Tick-borne encephalitis

Tick-borne encephalitisThe TICK-borne ENCEPHALITIS - an acute viral disease characterized by lesions of the gray matter of the brain and spinal cord. Reservoir and source of infection are wild animals (mainly rodents) and Ixodes ticks. May be infected not only by the suction of the tick, but also by the consumption of milk of infected goats. Etiology, pathogenesis. The pathogen belongs to arboviruses. Gate infection-skin (tick sucked) or mucous membrane of the digestive tract (alimentary infection). Virus hematogenous penetrates the Central nervous system, causes the most pronounced changes in the nerve cells of the anterior horns of the cervical spinal cord and in the nuclei of the medulla oblongata. The symptoms for. The incubation period lasts from 8 to 23 days (usually 7-14 days). The disease begins abruptly: there are chills, severe headache, weakness. In the early days, there is only a General toxic symptoms. Characteristic changes of the nervous system occur only with a 3-4-day illness. By the nature of the nervous system are the following syndromes: meningeal, poliomyelitis, polyradiculoneuritis, as well as manifestations of diffuse and focal encephalitis. Mild forms of tick-borne encephalitis can occur in the form of a short febrile illness without obvious signs of lesions of the nervous system. Medium-severe and severe forms of the disease occur with a predominance of any syndrome. For some patients (from 1 to 14%) the disease may progress to a chronic form. After suffering encephalitis can be lasting consequences in the form of a flaccid paralysis of the muscles of the neck, shoulder girdle, kozhevnikovskoe epilepsy. For diagnosis, we have the value of epidemiological background (seasonality, sucked mite, stay in endemic areas), characterized by lesions of the nervous system. To confirm the diagnosis using serological reactions (RSC, rnga). Treatment. Strict bed rest: in milder forms 7-10 days, with moderate 2-3 weeks, with heavy - much longer. In the first 3 days of treatment administered encephalitis gamma globulin 3-6 ml/m Oxygen therapy, vitamins. With the development of encephalitis prescribed prednisolone for 40-60 mg diuretics. In the period of convalescence in the presence of paresis and paralysis spend orthopedic treatment. The prognosis for modern methods of treatment have improved significantly. Some patients may be persistent violation ability as a result of residual effects of lesions of the nervous system. Prevention. When the suction mite in disadvantaged by encephalitis area must enter encephalitis gamma globulin (adults 3 ml, children 1.5-2 ml). According to the testimony preventive vaccination..



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