Listeriosis

ListeriosisLISTERIOSIS is an infectious disease from a group of zoonoses; characterized by polymorphism of clinical manifestations. Acute forms occur in the form of purulent meningitis, meningoencephalitis, sepsis, chronic, often in the form of recurrent inflammation of the urinary tract. Dominated by the alimentary route of infection. Etiology, pathogenesis. Listeria is a short, gram-positive bacilli, aerobic, stable in the environment, sensitive to penicillin, tetracycline, erythromycin, chloramphenicol. Gates infection is the mucous membrane of the digestive tract. In some cases, there is a healthy carrier of Listeria. With the penetration of Listeria in the blood may develop septic disease, skidding in the CNS occurs meningitis or meningoencephalitis. Listeria can long persist in the kidneys, which is set in pregnant women (possibly intrauterine infection of the fetus). The symptoms for. The incubation period lasts 2-4 weeks. Acute forms of listeriosis suddenly begin: chills, fever, headache, irritability, pain in the muscles. The disease often occurs with exanthema. Rash krupnoporistaya or erythematous, thickens in the major joints on the face forms the shape of a "butterfly". When glandular forms, moreover, appears to increase pain and peripheral lymph nodes. When nerve forms observed meningeal symptoms, and sometimes signs of encephalitis. Cerebrospinal fluid is purulent. Liver and spleen were enlarged. Sometimes the clinical picture of listeriosis in the foreground are the symptoms of acute gastroenteritis, pyelitis, endocarditis. Listeriosis of the newborn runs hard, with mortality rates up to 50%. High fever, shortness of breath, cyanosis, inflammation of the upper respiratory tract, specific listeriosny pneumonia, often complicated by purulent pleurisy. Liver and spleen were enlarged, for some patients jaundice appears, sometimes exanthema. Often involves the Central nervous system. In chronic forms of Listeria long to be in the human body without causing marked clinical changes. Sometimes they cause aggravation in the lungs of influenza-like illness or exacerbation of chronic pyelitis. With the weakening of the body (treatment with corticosteroids, immunosuppressants), they can cause exacerbation occurring in the form of severe generalized infection. Clinical diagnosis difficult. The most convincing evidence of the disease is the isolation of the pathogen from blood, cerebrospinal fluid, amniotic fluid, swabs of the throat. Serological testing is less important because of Listeria antigenically similar to other microorganisms. Treatment. In acute forms of listeriosis prescribe antibiotics tetracycline 0.2 - 0.3 g every 6 hours for 7-10 days, penicillin (400 000 IU every 4-6 h), erythromycin (0.25 g every 6 h) for 8-10 days. When treating pregnant in the first 3 months tetracycline is not appointed (the risk of teratogenic effects). The prognosis for glandular forms favorable. Pregnant listeriosis can lead to serious injuries of the fetus. After listeriosny meningoencephalitis can be persistent residual phenomena of the nervous system. Prevention. The fight against listeriosis farm animals. Pregnant women working in animal husbandry, temporarily transferred to work out of contact with animals. Specific prevention have not been developed..



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